Harris, Mishra & Koehler, 2009

Harris, J.,  Mishra, P. & Koehler, M. J. (2009). Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Learning Activity Types: Curriculum-based Technology Integration Reframed. Journal of Research on Technology in Education.

In this paper we critically analyze extant approaches to technology integration in teaching, arguing that many current methods are technocentric, often omitting sufficient consideration of the dynamic and complex relationships among content, technology, pedagogy, and context. We recommend using the technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) framework as a way to think about effective technology integration, recognizing technology, pedagogy, content and context as interdependent aspects of teachers’ knowledge necessary to teach content-based curricula effectively with educational technologies. We offer TPACK-based “activity types,” rooted in previous research about content-specific activity structures, as an alternative to existing professional development approaches and explain how this new way of thinking may authentically and successfully assist teachers’ and teacher educators’ technology integration efforts.


  1. Thanks Matt. I guess you were at NECC. Hope that went well. Sadly, I couldn’t make it this year – actually have never been able to make it to NECC since it falls bang in the middle of my summer teaching.

  2. Thanks Greg. I just found out about the post by Wes Fryer this evening (through the magic of trackback). I was (and actually still am) hoping to write a post based on his post. Hopefully tomorrow…

  3. Looking forward to this one, Punya! It’s a natural follow-up to much of the TPACK work that has been done (speaking to the choir, I’m sure).

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