Ambigram for TPACK. This image would look the same when reflected 
in a mirror . 

The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework, builds on Shulman’s idea of PCK, and attempts to capture some of the essential qualities of knowledge required by teachers for technology integration in their teaching, while addressing the complex, multifaceted and situated nature of teacher knowledge.  The TPACK framework looks at the relationships between technology, pedagogy, and content, in specific contexts.

TPACK-newAt the heart of the TPACK framework, is the complex interplay of three primary forms of knowledge: Content (CK), Pedagogy (PK), and Technology (TK). Effective technology integration for pedagogy around specific subject matter requires developing sensitivity to the dynamic, transactional relationship between all three components. A teacher capable of negotiating these relationships represents a form of expertise different from, and greater than, the knowledge of a disciplinary expert (say a mathematician or a historian), a technology expert (a computer scientist) and a pedagogical expert (an experienced educator).

The two definitive articles on TPACK are:

The most comprehensive summing up of the research and scholarship around TPACK can be found in the second edition of theTPACK handbook:


  • Herring, M., Koehler, M.J., & Mishra, P. (Eds.) (2016). Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (2nd edition). New York: Routledge.

For a comprehensive and ever growing literature on TPACK please visit the TPACK wiki at

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