Back in 2013 we proposed a framework for 21st century learning based on a synthesis of a range of reports, books, and articles (Kereluik, Mishra, Fahnoe & Terry, 2013 & diagram above). That article however was relatively abstract and what was unclear was whether this framework was consistent with what educator really think. This article provides the results of a survey on what educators think about 21st century learning. The results are thought-provoking—and we argue in some senses deeply misguided. We identify are three key myths about 21st century learning and suggest that these emerge as a consequence of an unreflective emphasis on the power of technology to access information as well as a fundamental misunderstanding of the very nature of learning and the broader goals and purposes of education. Complete reference, pdf of article and abstract below.
Note: There is an update / correction to this post which
can be found here: Update on “The TPACK story” or “Oops!“
I was recently invited to speak at the fall Doctoral Research Forum for the Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College on the ASU West campus. (A bit more context about the event, from a couple of years ago, can be found in a blog post by my colleague Sherman Dorn titled “Observations from a Doctoral Research Forum“). In speaking with Craig Mertler, who directs the EdD program here, I thought it best to speak about the role of theory in research. This is something that troubles graduate students a lot as they move through the program (and I have posted about it earlier here and here). I contextualized the discussion within the history of the work that Matt Koehler and I did in developing the TPACK framework. This was a fun talk to create and share. I created a narrated video of the slides of the talk, embedded below:
Note: There is an update / correction to this post which
can be found here: Update on “The TPACK story” or “Oops!“
On October 21, the Office of Scholarship partnered with the Research Advancement Office and the Teachers College Development Team to host the first MLFTC Grant Hackathon at ASU SkySong. Over 30 faculty and staff members attended the event. More information about the event (photos, slides etc.) can be found here …
You have wakened not out of sleep, but into a prior dream, and that dream lies within another, and so on, to infinity… The path that you are to take is endless, and you will die before you have truly awakened — Jorge Luis Borges
Borges’ quote of reality being a dream within a dream within a dream for ever and ever brings to mind the idea of infinite regress. This is the same as the hall of mirrors effect—the infinite reflections one generates when one places two mirrors parallel to each other—the same object repeated over and over and over. A similar idea can be seen in the design by “Whirlpools” design by M. C. Escher (above) where he combines one of his signature tessellations into two infinite spirals – spiraling inward forever.
These ideas led to my coming up with a new design for the idea of “infinite regress.” I have created many ambigrams to represent the idea of infinity (click here for examples) but this one is different in that it is a visual pun: The design itself is a 180-degree rotational-chain ambigram of the word “regress” mapped onto the universal symbol for infinity — hence “infinite regress.”
Over the past two-and-a-half years we have worked with STEM educators in Chicago Public Schools as part of the MSUrbanSTEM project. We have presented about this project at a few conferences over the past few years, and now we have our first publication. I am particularly happy with the title of the paper, an homage to one of my favorite poems, In broken images by Robert Graves. Complete reference, abstract given below:
Seals, C., Horton, A., Berzina-Pitcher, I., & Mishra, P. (2016). A New Understanding of our Confusion: Insights from a Year-Long STEM Fellowship Program. In C. Martin & D. Polly, (Eds). Handbook of Research on Teacher Education and Professional Development. Hershey, PA. IGI Global. 582-604.Continue reading →
The word “math” written such that it has rotational symmetry
i.e. it reads the same even when rotated by 180-degrees.
The relationship between mathematics and visual wordplay is one I have played with and writing about for a while (More here). I just discovered a YouTube video of a talk given by my partner-in-crime Gaurav Bhatnagar at a Math Ed conference (TIME 2015) in India, titled: On Punya Mishra’s mathematical ambigrams. Continue reading →
In this article, in our ongoing series on Rethinking technology & creativity in the 21st century, we interview Dr. Jung. Dr. Jung is a neuro-psychologist, brain imaging researcher, and a clinical professor of neurosurgery at the University of New Mexico. He started his graduate career interested in issues of intelligence… With time, however, Dr. Jung increasingly came to realize that intelligence was not enough to explain the vast array of human capabilities—particularly to issues such as creativity and innovation. For this reason, he has devoted the second decade of his career to better understanding creative cognition from a neuroscientific perspective. He speaks to three key ideas that (a) creativity can be cultivated; (b) it is (in)disciplined in nature – in that it requires both deep knowledge of a field as well as a willingness to step of the the discipline; and finally that (c) creativity needs downtime. Read the complete article below:
Mehta, R., Mishra, P., & the Deep-Play Research Group (2016). Downtime as a key to novelty generation: Understanding the neuroscience of creativity with Dr. Rex Jung. Tech Trends (60)6.
For the past 4 years, the Deep-Play group has written a series of articles for the journal Tech Trends under the broad rubric of Rethinking Technology & Creativity in the 21st Century. The first article was published in 2014 and we are still going strong. Over that time we have written 23 articles with 4 more in various stages of preparation. Writing these articles has been a wonderful experience, allowing all of us to play with ideas and, most importantly, to keep writing. There is a lot to be said for the discipline required to meet a deadline every two months.
The interesting thing is that in all these years, I have never held any of these 20+ issues of the journal in my hand. Not once. That changed this morning when I got into my office – and there was a packet with the past 4 issues – each with an article in the series. I must say it felt good to hold those volumes and skim through them. So I guess despite my digital dependence, there still is something special in seeing your name in print, or actually touching a “real” journal
For those interested the entire series is here: Rethinking Technology and Creativity
In the rush of summer and the move to Arizona I missed posting #28 and #29 of the TPACK newsletter, and before I knew it, #30 was here as well. Well here are links to the PDFs of all three newsletters
Once again thanks to Judi Harris for all the work that goes into curating these resources and putting them together on a regular basis. All previous issues of the newsletter can be found here
As I dig through my Research Gate requests I realize that I have missed out on putting some of my articles onto my website. Here is another one (and on a side note, it never hurts to make a Led Zeppelin reference in your paper – actually the paper starts with a quote from the band!):
Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Kereluik, K. (2009). The song remains the same: Looking Back to the Future of Educational Technology. TechTrends, 53, 5. p. 48-53.
I recently received a request (via ResearchGate) for something I had written back in 2004. In looking for it I realized that it had not been updated on my website. So below is the complete reference, abstract and link to a pdf.Continue reading →
I have been a huge fan of Bill Atkinson, creator of MacPaint, one of the key players in developing the GUI for the original Macintosh including coming up with things as the double-click, the menu bar, marquee selection and lots of interface ideas we take for granted today. His most impressive achievement, personally speaking, was Hypercard, which more than anything is responsible for my getting into the field of educational technology. So when I came across this quote below, about the design process, I felt the need to create a visual design to better represent it. Here is the quote, and the design below (you can click on it to get a larger version).
The process of [software] design really is one where you start with a vague notion of what you’re trying to make, and that vague notion slowly congeals and gets better defined. As you work with it more, it gets to the point where it is something, but as you try it you realize, “You know, I’ve kind of missed the mark here. This is sort of what I want to do, but what I really want is more like that! — Bill Atkinson
One of the highlights of my career at MSU was the partnership we built between the College of Education and the Azim Premji University / Azim Premji Foundation. This partnership now nearing 6 years has transformed my life in many ways and has led to some powerful and deeply meaningful friendships. It has been a wonderful journey and, as in life, some of what happened was planned and some of it sort of just happened. So, it is no surprise that when we wrote a book chapter about this partnership we titled it By Design and by Chance: The Story of One International Partnership (reference, abstract and link below):
One of the big parts of my life over the past decade or more, has been the Ganesh Festival celebrations in Lansing with friends and family—Good food and good times. Of course this year I have to miss all the fun – being here in Phoenix. I have kept up with all the activities vicariously – by email and text messages, but it is not the same. So I decided to dust off an old ambigram I had created and polish it to share with my Lansing-area friends. This is a 180-degree, rotational chain ambigram for the word “Ganesh” that can be read left to right, from the top or the bottom! Enjoy.
Ganesh is also one of the most fun deities in the Hindu pantheon and one of the most creatively represented. A few years ago I had made a video about the multiple representations of Ganesh. Watch The many manifestations of Ganesha below:
One of the myths of the new digital generation is that they are natural multi-taskers. The evidence, however, indicates that multi-tasking is detrimental to performance and success, and though we may try delude ourselves, the fact of the matter is that, we do worse on most measures of performance while multi-tasking. How can this be corrected? One approach that makes sense is to improve awareness of this finding. But does increasing aware of this problematic phenomenon actually help reduce multitasking? This study, led by doctoral student Colin Terry, seeks to answer this question:
Today is my first official day at Arizona State University. Though I have been here in the Phoenix area for a few days already, I truly start today. As I had written in my earlier post, I will be the new Associate Dean for Scholarship (as in scholarly and research activities) at the Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College here at ASU. I will also be a professor in the Division of Academic Leadership & Innovation.
I am both excited and nervous about this new opportunity but overall I am looking forward to this next stage in my career. My website will be moving soon to a new hosting service – but the punyamishra.com address should still work. I want to thank the people here at ASU and Dave Dai’s team at MSU for making this website transition relatively smooth (at least so far).
My email address will change of course – my new address is Punya.Mishra[at]asu.edu, though I do check my msu.edu address on a somewhat regular basis.
I started working at Michigan State University on the 15th of August, 1998. Today exactly 18 years later I bid MSU farewell to take up a new position as Associate Dean of Scholarship at the Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College atArizona State University.
These last 18 years have been wonderful, both personally and professionally. MSU is where I came into my own as a scholar and researcher. Michigan was where we settled down and built a network of close friends and colleagues. My son was 2 when we moved here and my daughter was born a year later. He is today a junior at the other university in Michigan and she is a senior in high school. Wonderful years! Michigan State University (and the state of Michigan) have been home, intellectually, socially and personally.
I know for sure that a part of me will always be a Spartan, will always be a Michigander.
It is impossible to capture these past 18 years in a few words, so many wonderful memories created and so people, friends and colleagues, to thank, so I will not even try. I will just say, you know who you are, and know that I treasure all the wonderful times we had together. Thank you for being part of this journey. Know, also, that I will miss you.
… but also remember that these days we are all a click or a phone call away. So keep in touch.
The next article in our series (Rethinking technology and creativity for the 21st century) for the journal Tech Trends is now available online. This article has an interview with Dr. Mark Runco, Distinguished Research Fellow of the American Institute of Behavioral Research and Technology, a Professor at the University of Georgia, and an internationally recognized scholar of creativity. Read more by following the link below:
Richardson, C., Mishra, P., & the Deep-Play Research Group (2016). Navigating the Tensions Inherent in Understanding Creativity: An Interview with Mark Runco. Tech Trends (60)5, 415-418.
Back in 2013 we (Koehler, Mishra and Cain) published an updated version of an article on TPACK.
Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., & Cain, W. (2013). What is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)? Journal of Education (193)3, 13-20.
This article was then picked up, translated into Spanish and published in the journal Virtualidad, Educación y Ciencia (Virtuality, Education and Science). Complete citation and link below:
Koehler, M.J., Mishra, P., & Cain, W. (2015). ¿Qué son los Saberes Tecnológicos y Pedagógicos del Contenido (TPACK)? Virtualidad, Educación y Ciencia, (6)10. [Alternatively you can access is directly at https://revistas.unc.edu.ar/index.php/vesc/article/view/11552/11983]
iWonder: Rediscovering School Science is a new journal of science education focusing on middle school science teachers, published by the Azim Premji University. The second issue of the journal just appeared – and it has the first article in a series titled Research to Practice, that I am co-editing with my colleague Angie Calabrese Barton. Written by Rohit Mehta and Sarah Keenan, you can find the article, complete citation and abstract below:
Mehta, R., & Keenan, S. (2016, June). Why teachers should care about beauty in science education. iWonder: Rediscovering School Science (1) 2, 83-86.
Abstract: This article explores the role of beauty in science education. The authors use research in science education to highlight the importance of teachers consciously making connections to aesthetic aspects in science. Caring about beauty in science can inspire a sense of wonder and curiosity among students.
Incidentally, one of the most fun parts of writing this article was having to create the illustrations that accompany the prose. Both these images were created with resources shared freely under Creative Commons licenses, and labeled for reuse with modification. The first illustration is given above (at the beginning of the blog post) and the second one is below.
Figure 2.Connecting across scales of beauty.
From the grandeur of the cosmos to the intricacies of sub-atomic particles,
beauty is all around us. These infinities (of the very small and the very large)
are bridged by the human intellect—the beauty of mathematics at work.
Danah Henriksen, Petra Fisser and I have a new article (complete reference and link below). This article emerged from a Thematic Working group on Creativity in a technology enhanced curriculum that the three of us led at EduSummIT 2015 (see more here). This article is part of a special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society devoted to EdusummIT 2015. You can download the entire issue here or just our article below:
Henriksen, D., Mishra, P., & Fisser, P. (2016). Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change. Educational Technology & Society, 19 (3), 27–37.
Abstract: In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has becoming increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest creativity emerges and exists within a system, rather than only at the level of individual processes. We suggest that effective infusion of creativity and technology in education must be considered in a three-fold systemic manner: at the levels of teacher education, assessment and educational policy. We provide research and practical implications with broad recommendations across these three areas, to build discourse around infusion of creative thinking and technology in 21st century educational systems.
Illustration credit: Individual – Field – Domain and their interactions to determine Where is Creativity? (Illustration by Punya Mishra, based on Csikszentmihalyi, 1997)
I just came across Dieter Rams: ten principles for good design and was immediately struck by how closely they paralleled what is essential for good teaching. All one has to do is replace the word “design” with “teaching” and I think we get 10 pretty good principles to follow (or think about). This is a game I have played before in this post about the need for new educational research paradigms / approaches building on some comments by Don Norman about the need to new design research paradigms / approaches (see Rethinking Ed Tech Research).
Here are Rams’ 10 principles with the word design replaced by teaching (and in a couple of cases lightly edited to make sense in this new context).
- Good teaching is innovative
- Good teaching is useful
- Good teaching is aesthetic
- Good teaching is understandable
- Good teaching is unobtrusive
- Good teaching is honest
- Good teaching is long-lasting
- Good teaching is thorough down to the last detail
- Good teaching is environmentally friendly
- Good teaching is as little teaching as possible.
He is also known for saying “Less but better” which, if you ask me, is a good slogan for teaching as well.
The Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia (CEMCA), New Delhi, recently published a book titled “Resource Book on ICT Integrated Teacher Education.” Edited by Dr. Manas Ranjan Panigrahi it is available as an Open Educational Resource (OER) from the CEMCA website.
The book has 5 chapters, including on by co-authored by a team here at MSU. Complete reference (with link to the book) and table of contents below.
Panigrahi, M.R. (2016). (Ed.) Resource Book on ICT Integrated Teacher Education. New Delhi: Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia. Available online here.
Table of Contents
Danah Henriksen and I recently edited a special issue of the Journal of Technology and Teacher Education (Volume 23, Number 3, July 2015) devoted to Creativity, Technology and Teacher Education (see blog post here). This special issue has now been issued as an eBook by AACE. Here is the complete citation, along with links to the book page on LearnTechLib and the complete pdf, as well as an abstract:
Henriksen, D., & Mishra, P. (2016). Creativity, technology & teacher education. Waynesville, NC: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). [LearnTechLib link | Link to complete eBook PDF]
Abstract: This book focuses on research related to creativity, technology and teacher education, examining these topics through a range of approaches and ideas across multiple contexts. The volume itself began as a special issue of the Journal of Technology & Teacher Education. The chapters in this book speak to different aspects of theory, research, and practice – in attempts to go beyond the specifics or intricacies of tools, and towards a broader framework. This provides guiding ideas and takeaways that can inform the future of teacher education. One of the strengths of this volume is the rich manner in which these ideas are explored across different subject matters, classroom and learning contexts, technologies, teacher roles, pedagogical approaches, and theoretical frameworks.
Keywords and complete table of contents, below the jump:
The next article in our series (Rethinking technology and creativity for the 21st century) for the journal Tech Trends is now available online. This article has an interview with Dr. Shakuntala Banaji, currently Associate Professor and the Program Director for the Master’s in Media, Communication, and Development at the London School of Economics. Her work “spans multiple areas of research and instruction, including creativity, cinema, civic participation, and critical examinations of media.” Read more by following the link below:
Good, J., Mishra, P., & the Deep-Play Research Group (2016). Creativity as Resistance. Tech Trends (60)4, 309-312.
Theoretically there should a reciprocal relationship between Theory and Practice – but it is the gap that every academic bemoans. This posting is prompted not by any particular insight into these matters but rather to share a set of visuals (ambigrams, memes, whatever…) that I created over the past day or so. This was prompted by a conversation about this with Danah Henriksen – so some blame / credit should go to her. (I prefer her getting the blame and all the credit coming to me, but she, and you, may disagree.)
To start with up on top is the standard image – the arrows representing how practice ought to inform theory and vice versa. As Immanuel Kant never said (but should have), “Experience without theory is blind, but theory without experience is mere intellectual play.” So to celebrate this reciprocal, transactional relationship here is an ambigram for these two words, reading “research” one way and “practice” when rotated 180 degrees!
This of course allows me to recreate the two-arrow diagram up above with a new image that can be read even when rotated 180 degrees!!Continue reading →
The TPACK framework, as we know it today, was first introduced to the world in 2006 in an article in TCRecord (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). An important part of the story of the success of the framework was the publication of The handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) for educators by AACTE and Routledge. Matt and I wrote an introductory chapter for that (see Koehler & Mishra, 2008).
Over the past decade the amount of research into TPACK has grown exponentially… and so it was time for the 2nd edition of the handbook (citation and more information below).
The TPACK framework is a theoretical framework that seeks to influence practice. And most gratifyingly (for Matt Koehler and myself) it appears to have had a significant impact in that area. That said, the field lacked concrete, rich examples of TPACK in practice. Cases that would (quoting Darling-Hammond & Snyder) “add context to theory” highlighting the rich telling detail, as well as local contextual factors that are often lost when teaching is discussed in more general terms.
This gap has now been filled with a lovely ebook by my friends and colleagues Mark Hofer, Lynn Bell and Glen Bull. The Practitioner’s guide to technology pedagogy and content knowledge (TPACK): Rich media cases of teacher knowledge focuses on developing rich “exemplary” cases of practice, and boy does it deliver. Consider what is included in each of the cases included in the book:
Our series of articles related to the broad topic of Rethinking technology and creativity for the 21st century in the journal TechTrends continues with two new articles. The first focuses on developing a systems view of creativity, specifically on how technology is opening up the world and changing systems of creativity.
Henriksen, D., & Hoelting, M. (2016). A Systems View of Creativity in a YouTube World. Tech Trends. (60)2. 102-106
The next article (reference and link below) makes a shift in our focus for the next few articles in the series. For the foreseeable future we will be focusing these articles on interviews with scholars and researchers on creativity. Through these interviews we seek to introduce their work and ideas to a wider population as well as connect their work to the themes we have been developing in this series so far. The first article in this new initiative is an interview with independent creativity scholar Michele Root-Bernstein.
Keenan, S., Mishra, P., & the Deep-Play Research Group (2016). Practicing the Process with Dr. Michele Root-Bernstein, Tech Trends (60)3, 200-203.